The change in literary culture is also evident in the beginnings of prose fiction. The work is full of lyrical digressions and autobiographic passages. Synopsis was the first Slavic textbook on history.
Other important nineteenth century developments included Ivan Krylov the fabulist; the literary criticism of Vissarion Belinsky and Herzen ; playwrights such as Griboedov and Ostrovsky and Kozma Prutkov a collective pen name the satirist. His main works are two satirical comedies which mock contemporary Russian gentry.
The book began with the history of the origins and lifestyle of the Slavs and ended with the mid-seventeenth century in the first edition. Before Michael Romanov was at last proclaimed tsar inRussia was convulsed by struggles for power, peasant rebellions, and foreign invasions. Early history Old Russian literature consists of several masterpieces written in the Old Russian language usually referred to as Old Church Slavonic, but not to be confused with the contemporaneous Church Slavonic.
Its theme is the disastrous fratricidal Russia lit of the Russian princes. Petrine era The "Westernization" of Russiacommonly associated with Peter the Great and Catherine the Greatcoincided with a reform of the Russian alphabet and increased tolerance of the idea of employing the popular language for general literary purposes.
Like Pushkin, he would die at a very young age in a duel. In S togo berega written —50; From the Other Shorewhich combines essays and dialogueshe reflects with penetrating skepticism on the idea that history has knowable laws.
It is not just that Russians view him as their greatest poet; he is also virtually the symbol of Russian culture.
Medieval Russian literature had an overwhelmingly religious character and used an adapted form of the Church Slavonic language with many South Slavic elements. He denied the existence of historical laws and insisted that ethics is a matter not of rules but of supreme sensitivity to the particular.
Deeply playful and experimental, Pushkin adopted a vast array of conflicting masks and personae. Some consider Osip Mandelshtam —who died in a Soviet prison camp, to be the greatest Russian poet of the 20th century.
The principal theoretician of the Symbolist movement, Vyacheslav Ivanov —wrote mythic poetry conveying a Neoplatonist philosophy. A relatively new trend in Russian literature is that female novelists such as Tatyana Tolstaya, Lyudmila Ulitskaya, and Dina Rubina came into prominence. Western culture was absorbed so rapidly in the course of the 18th century that by the 19th century the first language of the upper nobility was not Russian but French.
In his vituperative replies, Ivan exhibits the psychology of a victim self-pitying in accounts of his childhood turned victimizer. Shocked by an uprising of Cossacks and peasants —75known from the name of its leader as the Pugachov Rebellion, and later by the French RevolutionCatherine turned increasingly conservative.
However, most of the notes are dedicated to India, its political structure, trade, agriculturecustoms and ceremonies. Anton Chekhov When Tolstoy abandoned the prosaic ethos, Chekhov, one of the greatest short story writers in world literature, remained loyal to it. Vasily Kirillovich Trediakovskya poet, playwright, essayist, translator and contemporary to Antiokh Kantemir, also found himself deeply entrenched in Enlightenment conventions in his work with the Russian Academy of Sciences and his groundbreaking translations of French and classical works to the Russian language.
His highly tendentious novel Mat ; Mothera model for Socialist Realism, and many other works divide characters simplistically into two groups—progressive and virtuous or reactionary and vicious.
While the Silver Age is considered as the development of the nineteenth century Russian literature tradition, some avant-garde poets tried to overturn it, including Velimir Khlebnikov, David Burlyuk, and Vladimir Mayakovsky.
The leading poets of young generation are arguably Dmitry Vodennikov and Andrey Rodionov, both famous not only for their verses, but also for ability to artistically recite them. The 18th century The 18th century was a period of codification, imitation, and absorption of foreign models.
But soon Sovietization of the country brought Russia lit of the literature. An aristocratic sensibility, the culture of salons, an aura of friendly intimacy, and genres suitable to this ethos marked the poetry of this period. Excellent verse was produced, and the canon as it is known today began to take shape.
Dmitry Tuptalo of Rostov, Stefan Yavorsky, and Feofan Prokopovichthe three most important writers of the period, were all educated at the Kiev Academy. It is worth stressing the important role of tradition and the canon in Russian poetry. Maxim Gorky became the official founder of Socialist Realism.
The so-called zhitiya svyatikh, Lives of the Saints formed a popular genre of the Old Russian literature. The response of writers and critics By the 19th century it became commonplace to regard Russia as a young country that had entered history only with the Petrine reforms.Russian literature refers to the literature of Russia and its émigrés and to the Russian-language literature of several independent nations once a part of what was historically Rus', the Russian Empire or the Soviet Union.
Russian literature, the body of written works produced in the Russian language, beginning with the Christianization of Kievan Rus in the late 10th century. The most celebrated period of Russian literature was the 19th century, which produced, in a remarkably short period, some of the indisputable.
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