All rats were then returned to their home cage, and tested the next day for fear memory expression. We predicted that there would be differences in social interactions during the fear-conditioning by-proxy session day 2 in female rats relative to what was previously observed in males, and consistent with previous work Jeon et al.
These findings may have implications for models of phobias. Consistent with our previous application of this paradigm in male rats Bruchey et al. Fear can also be acquired from a social context, such as observing the fear expression of a conspecific or witnessing another animal during a dangerous encounter.
In the experiments presented here, I i investigate the subject traits that bias rats to engage a social learning strategy; ii examine the neural mechanisms involved in this form of observational learning; and iii demonstrate how this paradigm can be incorporated into translationally-relevant tests of long term behavioral deficits resulting from early life trauma, in line with the health goals of the fear learning field in general e.
The extent to which nonprimate laboratory animals engage in learning strategies based on vicarious experience is remarkably scantily characterized.
For decades, researchers have observed a number of species of animals socially transmit information relevant to their surroundings, including foraging and choosing food, recognizing predators, choosing mates, and communicating with conspecifics see Shettleworth for review.
On day 2, the fear-conditioned rat FC rat was returned to the fear-conditioning chamber accompanied by a cage mate FCbP ratand the tone was played in the absence of the foot-shock.
The third rat No FC remained in the home cage and on day 2 was allowed to freely interact with the fear-conditioned FC and fear-conditioned by-proxy FCbP rat when they were returned after the fear-conditioning by-proxy session on day 2.
In the case of specific phobias, however, attributions of fear to stimuli is not necessarily preceded by a traumatic episode encoded in memory [ 21 ].
Behavior Experimental design Two experiments were conducted. In order to better understand social transmission of fear, the possible factors contributing to the social transmission need to be dissected.
In this experiment, prosocial behavior occurring at the termination of the cue on day two was significantly greater between sisters than their non-sister counterparts, and this behavior resulted in increased freezing on day three.
In the first experiment, we fear conditioned one of the rats from each triad with 3 tone-shock pairings. Rats were randomly assigned to each triad as soon as they arrived to the University of Texas at Austin from Harlan.
Abstract After fear conditioning e. This direct associative learning is only one technique under which individuals can learn about potential threats, but its convenient design and the robust production of responses makes direct fear conditioning the most frequently used paradigm in the research of fear and anxiety disorders.
Fear can also be acquired from a social context, such as through observing the fear expression of a conspecific Mineka et al. Monfils Show more https: Our results suggest that, during memory retrieval, fear of a stimulus can be socially transmitted to a cage-mate. Here, we review how certain individual traits in the current situational state of the subjects may either facilitate or impede learning in this social fear-conditioning paradigm and discuss how fear conditioning by proxy learning relates to empathy seen in humans.
My results indicate that the identity of demonstrator animals as well as prior experience of the observer contributes to the expression of fear acquired vicariously. Social transmission of fear, fear conditioning, memory retrieval, observational learning In fear conditioning, the pairing of an initially neutral conditioned stimulus e.
Rats were not handled, other than to perform cage changes, prior to the start of the experiements. Through a series of elegant studies, Knapska and colleagues developed a model in which rats were housed in pairs, and one of the two was fear conditioned to a context.In fear conditioning, the pairing of an initially neutral conditioned stimulus (e.g., an auditory tone) to an aversive unconditioned stimulus (e.g., a footshock) leads to the formation of a long-lasting fear memory, such that when the tone is later presented on its own, it elicits fear expression.
The social transmission of associative fear in rats: Mechanisms and applications of fear conditioning by proxy (dissertation). The University of Texas at Austin, Texas Dissertation Libraries, Texas Dissertation Libraries database and represents all fear conditioning by proxy experiments performed in the Monfils laboratory.
Fear conditioning by proxy, as with other methods of social fear learning (Kavaliers, Colwell, & Choleris, ), is more effective when subordinate rats learn from more dominant rats in the cage (Jones & Monfils, a). In this paradigm, play behavior is recorded in 12‐min sessions during the first 4 hr of the rat's dark cycle.
This method of fear learning conserves some of the pathways necessary for direct fear learning (e.g., lateral amygdala) but is unique in that it requires regions necessary for executive control (e.g., anterior cingulate cortex) making the fear conditioning by proxy paradigm a novel tool for evaluating learning and behavior in the laboratory.
Finally, we found that EO and NO, but not ES, mice showed increased affiliative social interactions with demonstrators after observational fear conditioning (Figures 1G and 1H). This suggested the increase in interaction was driven by the observation of distress in the demonstrator, which may reflect empathic processes.
Dec 06, · Keywords: Social transmission of fear, fear conditioning, memory retrieval, observational learning In fear conditioning, the pairing of an initially neutral conditioned stimulus (e.g., an auditory tone) to an aversive unconditioned stimulus (e.g., a footshock) leads to the formation of a long-lasting fear memory, such that when the.Download