Types of Information Interaction Depth of processing describes how you interact with the information. Craik and Lockhart argued that memory is a function of the "level" to which material is processed and that this is independent of the amount of repetition or rehearsal of the stimulus.
As can be seen, about twice as many brand names for which deep processing questions were asked were recalled compared to those for which shallow processing questions were asked.
According to semantic network theories, this is because such a stimulus will have many connections to other encoded memories, which are activated based on closeness in semantic network structure. Phonemic processing — which is when we encode its sound.
In one study, both implicit free recall and explicit memory of emotional aspects memorization of word lists were enhanced by threatening meanings in such patients. The ads were chosen to represent a wide variety of products which would vary considerably on such features as familiarity, distinctiveness or personal relevance.
The logic for this standard correction procedure is that each subject might be expected to guess "yes" by chance about as of ten for correct items as they would for incorrect ones. It showed that encoding was not a simple, straightforward process.
It is obvious there are practical implications for depth of processing research for students. The experimenter presented the ads by turning the pages of a notebook to the beat of an electronic timer set at a five-second rate. However, there is significant room for the modifiers mentioned earlier to affect levels-of-processing to be activated within each sensory mode.
Archived from the original pdf on The original study found that structural processing produced the worst recall and semantic produced the best. Depth of processing and the retention of words in episodic memory. However, you did not have the think of their meaning.
This procedure corresponds to the usual "incidental learning" paradigm used in many memory experiments. Neural evidence[ edit ] Several brain imaging studies using positron emission tomography and functional magnetic resonance imaging techniques have shown that higher levels of processing correlate with more brain activity and activity in different parts of the brain than lower levels.
How the Experiment Was Conducted The following words were presented in this experiment. This theory postulates that memory is a function of the type of cognitive processes which occur during exposure to a to-be-remembered stimulus and has elements in common with a number of recent theories of advertising effects e.
For words in the first column structural processingyou were asked if the words were capitalized or not. Attributing verbal attributes to odors has similar effects.
The familiarity modifier has been tested in implicit memory experiments, where subjects report false memories when presented with related stimuli. Each group was presented with a long list of words that were to be processed in one of several ways. A shallow processing question example would be "Is the word in upper case letters?
Contact Author How the Experiment Works Pretend for a minute that you are a teacher who has a student who has asked for your help.
Memory was superior for items presumed to be processed at a deep level. Craik and Lockhart argued that deep processing leads to better long-term memory than shallow processing.
Levels-of-processing effects on familiarity". Some questions required the participants to process the word in a deep way e. Again, no mention was made that the words were to be remembered. Finally, for words in the third column semantic processing you were asked if they made sense in the context of a given sentence.In the present experiment, levels of processing were measured through three conditions: physical (does the word have four letters), rhyming (do two words rhyme) and semantics (does a word fit into a sentence).
significant effects. Retention was clearly superior following the deeper processing and, while recall increases with additional processing regardless of depth, the amount of this increase is related to depth.
That is, the benefit to retention provided by additional processing was greater at deep levels than at shallow levels.
A shallow processing question example would be "Is the word in upper case letters?", while an intermediate processing question was "Does the word rhyme with weight?".
A series of ten experiments demonstrated consistently better memory for. The levels-of-processing effect, identified by Fergus I. M. Craik and Robert S. Lockhart indescribes memory recall of stimuli as a function of the depth of mental processing.
Deeper levels of analysis produce more elaborate, longer-lasting, and stronger memory traces than shallow levels of analysis. general, deeper encodings took longer to accomplish and were associated with higher levels of performance on the subsequent memory test.
Also, questions lead-ing to positive responses were associated with higher retention levels than questions leading to negative responses, at least at deeper levels of encoding.
Levels of Processing 3 The Effect of Levels of Processing on Retention of Word Meanings Much contemporary research has been concerned with exploring the idea that the cognitions of an individual, and the manner in which they are organized, are important determinants of information processing.Download