Whereas functionalists see religion as a unifying force that strengthens the value consensus. Husbands and wives have sexual access to each other, and in all societies, there are norms concerning sexual activity outside marriage.
However he ignores the positive functions of religion as functionalists suggest such as, psychological adjustment to misfortune. In the same way, taboos that regard menstruation, pregnancy and childbirth as polluting may also prevent participation. As such there will be no need for religion in a classless society and it will disappear.
Therefore, religion masks the underlying problem of exploitation that creates the need for it. Furthermore, religious laws and customs may give women fewer rights than men for example in access to divorce, how many spouses they can marry, decision making, dress codes et cetera.
This has the effect of dividing society by gender and causing conflict between the two. For Feminists religion is patriarchal and an ideology that legitimises female subordination.
Durkheim believed that the essence of all religion could be found by studying its simplest form, in the simplest type of society.
Unlike functionalists who see society as based on harmonious consensus, Marxists see all societies as divided into two classes.
We have considered how the functionalists have tried to identify the roles performed by the family and the way in which it helps to maintain order and stability in society.
Therefore, Murdock has argued that the family caters to the sexual needs of its adult members and also limits sexual access of other members of the society thereby maintaining stability. From his analysis, he has argued that the family performs four basic functions for its individual members and society at large.
This view is a direct contrast with functionalists, as they believe that religion is a crucial part in society in terms of maintaining social solidarity and social integration. He uses his study of the Trobriand islanders to explain how religion performs its role.
TOC Unit 8 5.
For this reason he used studies of an Australian Aboriginal tribe, with a clan system. Firstly, the family must transmit the culture of the society to the children. Marxists believe that religion acts as an opiate to dull the pain of exploitation by masking its pain rather than treating its cause.
These are; when the outcome is important but is uncontrollable and therefore uncertain, and secondly at times of life crises. In this context, rituals provide the people with a sense of control which eases the psychological tensions and gives them confidence.
This function is an important one as, without culture, the society could not survive, and too much deviation from the norm would disrupt the stability of the society.
The role of parents that they are asked to assume also provides them with opportunities for expressing their childish whims through their children. Malinowski agrees with Durkheim that religion provides solidarity, however in his view it does so by performing psychological functions for the individuals.
In his study he contrasts fishing in the lagoon and ocean fishing. In conclusion, functionalism is a consensus perspective that sees religion performing positive functions for society and individuals, providing a moral framework for society, providing identity as well as providing individuals with buoyancy in times of uncertainty and misfortune.
Hire Writer Religion is more than just simply a set of beliefs; it involves rituals in relation to the sacred. Another one of the main criticisms aimed at them denounces the too optimistic picture of the family that they present.
Marxists see religion as exploiting the proletariat and creating false consciousness. The family provides the society with new members and assume responsibility for raising them. According to Durkheim the fact that sacred things evoke such powerful feelings in believers indicate to Durkheim that this is because they are symbols representing something of great power.
How to cite this page Choose cite format: Each theory posits valuable arguments and insight into the role of religion. It is argued that they have not provided any alternatives to the family, that is, they have not considered the other institutions that can also perform the functions that are being fulfilled by the family.
These sacred things evoke such powerful feelings, which lead Durkheim to believe that something this powerful can only be society itself, which clearly suggests that religion is in fact less valuable than society.
For Marx religion operates as an ideological weapon used by the bourgeoisie that is the upper class in society to legitimate the suffering of the poor as something inevitable and God-given.
In other words, it looks at how the family, as an institution, helps in maintaining order and stability in society, and the significance of the family for its individual members.
By this, he means that family life provides adults with the emotional security that they need. Religious influences on cultural norms can also lead to unequal treatment such as, genital mutilation or punishments for sexual transgressions. In effect, divisions in society based on gender, for example regarding menstruation or pregnant women as taboos, break social integration.
On the other hand, Feminists take a totally different perspective on the function of religion in terms of benefiting both societies and individual members. In modern capitalist societies, the upper classes that own the means of production exploit the proletariats. Feminists see religion as an instrument of patriarchy.Chapter 1 Questions.
Online course questions asked during reading. STUDY. PLAY. The functionalists perspective emphasizes. How parts of a society are structured to maintain stability.
Basic sociology uses applied and clinical sociology to study as social problem to. Each perspective will also explain the implications of the diversity perspective on human behavior in.
Cultural Diversity Cultural diversity is based on the idea that cultural identities should not be discarded or ignored, but rather maintained and valued (American Multicultural Publications, ). We must study the environment the.
What is the functionalist perspective in sociology?! Home; Cliff's Notes; Subjects; What is the functionalist perspective in sociology? All Subjects. Accounting How can banks afford to lend out so much money? What should I consider when deciding whether to invest in a company?
Test Prep To study better, I want to get organized with some of. The functionalist perspective achieved its greatest popularity among American sociologists in the s and 50s. While European functionalists originally focused on explaining the inner workings of social order, American functionalists focused on discovering the functions of human behavior.
Functionalists analyze social institutions in terms of the function they play. Sociologists who work from the conflict perspective study the distribution of resources, power, and inequality.
economic status, and nationality. However, at the core of feminist sociology is the idea that, in most societies, women have been systematically. A Functionalist View On Poverty Sociology Essay. Print Reference this Was he able to express his ideas on how a functionalist perspective on poverty should be in vicinities such as Manila, Quezon City, Cebu and others?
Poverty, according to Functionalists encompasses two main functions. Motivates us to work harder than what we are.Download